Anakinra is a recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). It competitively inhibits binding of IL-1α and IL-1β to the IL-1 receptor type 1. Given daily as subcutaneous injection, it has modest but significant anti-inflammatory efficacy in Rheumatoid arthritis and has been proven of particular benefit in autoinflammatory syndromes, where IL-1 seems to play a pivotal role.

Anakinra has been reported to be useful in refractory seizures in the chronic phase of FIRES[1].

1. a Dilena R, Mauri E, Aronica E, Bernasconi P, Bana C, Cappelletti C, Carrabba G, Ferrero S, Giorda R, Guez S, Scalia Catenacci S, Triulzi F, Barbieri S, Calderini E, Vezzani A. Therapeutic effect of Anakinra in the relapsing chronic phase of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome. Epilepsia Open. 2019 Mar 27;4(2):344-350. doi: 10.1002/epi4.12317. eCollection 2019 Jun.
[PMID: 31168503] [PMCID: 6546072] [DOI: 10.1002/epi4.12317]
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